ancient harbours of Utica, Hadrumetum, Thapsus (Dimas). But it was the occupation of Tunisia by the French irr 1881 which really gave the,impetus to modern investigations in this district of ruined cities. They were put on a solid foundation by the publication of the Geographic comparee of Charles Tissot (1884). Trained scholars were sent there annually by the French government: Cagnat, Saladin, Poinssot, La Blanchere, S. Reinach, E. Babelon, Carton, Audollent, Steph. Gsell, J. Toutain, Espe-randieu, Gauckler, Merlin, Homo and many others, to say nothing of German scholars, such as Willmans and Schulten, and especially of a great number of enthusiastic officers of the army of occupation, who explored all the ancient sites, and in many cases excavated with great success (for their results see the works quoted above). It would be impossible to enumerate here all the monographs describing, for example, the ruins of Carthage, those of the temple of the waters at Mount Zaghuan, the amphitheatre of El Jem (Thysdrus), the temple of Saturn, the royal tomb and the theatre of Dugga (Thugga), the bridge of Chemtu (Simitthu), the ruins and cemeteries of Tebursuk and Medeina (Althiburus), the rich villa of the Laberii at Wadna (Uthina), the sanctuary of Saturn Balcara-nensis on the hill called Bu-Kornain, the ruins of the district of Enfida (Aphrodisium, Uppenna, Segermes), those of Leptis minor (Lemta), of Thenae (near Sfax), those of the island of Meninx (Jerba), of the peninsula of Zarzis, of Mactar, Sbeitla (Sufetula), Gigthis (Bu-Grara), Gafsa (Capsa), Kef (Sicca Veneria), Bulla Regia, &c.
From this accumulation of results most valuable evidence as to the history and more especially the internal administration of Africa under the Romans has been derived. In particular we know how rural life was there developed, and with what care the water necessary for the growing of cereals was everywhere provided. Sculpture throughout the district is very provincial and of minor importance; the only exceptions are certain statues found at Carthage and Cherchel, the capital of the Mauretanian kings.
AUTHORITIES.Among general works on the subject may be mentioned: Morcelli, Africa Christiana (1816); Gustave Boissiere, L'Algerie romaine (2nd ed., 1883); E. Mercier, Histoire de V Ajrique septentrionale (1888); Charles Tissot, Geographic comparee de la province romaine d'Afrique (1884-1888), with atlas; Vivien de Saint-Martin, LeNord de I Ajrique dans I'antiquite grecque et remains (1883); Gaston Boissier, L'Ajrique romaine (1895); Cl. Pallu de Lessert, Pastes des provinces africaines (Proconsulate, Numidie, Mauretanie) sous la domination romaine (1896-1901); R. Cagnat, L'Armee romaine d'Afrique (1892); A. Daux, Les Emporia pheniciens dais le Zeugis et le Byzacium (1869); Ludwig Muller, Numismatique de I'ancienne Ajrique (1860-1862; Supplement, 1874); Ch. Diehl, L'Ajrique byzantine (1896); Stephane Gsell, Recherches arch&o-logigues en Ajrique (1893); Paul Monceaux, Histoire litteraire de VAjrique chretienne (1901-1905); J. Toutain, Les Cites romaines de la Tunisie (1895); Atlas archeologique de la Tunisie, published by the Ministry of Public Instruction (1895 foil.); Atlas archeologique de I'Algerie, published by Stephane Gsell (1900 foil.); Toulotte, Geographie de VAjrique chretienne (18921894); Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, vol. viii. and Supplement (1881). Cf. also articles CARTHAGE,NUMIDIA, &c., JuGURTHA,and articles relating to Roman History. (E. B.*)
AFRICAN LILY (Agapanthus umbellatus), a member of the natural order Liliaceae, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, whence it was introduced at the close of the I7th century. It is a handsome greenhouse plant, which is hardy in the south of England and Ireland if protected from severe frosts. It has a short stem bearing a tuft of long, narrow, arching leaves, 5 to 2 ft. long, and a central flower-stalk, 2 to 3 ft. high, ending in an umbel of bright blue, funnel-shaped flowers. The plants are easy to cultivate, and are generally grown in large pots or tubs which can be protected from frost in winter. During the summer they require plenty of water, and are very effective on the margins of lakes or running streams, where they thrive admirably. They increase by offsets, or may be propagated by dividing the root-stock in early spring or autumn. A number of forms are known in cultivation; such are albidus, with white flowers, avreus, with leaves striped with yellow, and iiariegatus, with leaves almost entirely white with a few green bands. There are also double-flowered and larger and smaller flowered forms.
AFRICANUS, SEXTUS JULIUS, a Christian traveller and historian of the 3rd century, was probably born in Libya, and may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in A.D. 195. Little is known of his personal history, except that he lived at Emmaus, and that he went on an embassy to the emperor Heliogabalus 1 to ask for the restoration of the town, which had fallen into ruins. His mission succeeded, and Emmaus was henceforward known as Nicopolis. Dionysius bar-Salibi makes him a bishop, but probably he was not even a presbyter. He wrote a history of theworld(Xpoi'O7pa<^tat, in five books)from the creation to the year A.D. 221, a period, according to his computation, of 5723 years. He calculated the period between the creation and the birth of Christ as 5499 years, and ante-dated the latter event by three years. This method of reckoning became known as the Alexandrian era, and was adopted by almost all the eastern churches. The history, which had an apologetic aim, is no longer extant, but copious extracts from it are to be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively in compiling the early episcopal lists. There are also fragments in Syncellus, Cedrenus and the Paschale Chronicon. Eusebius (Hist. Ecc. i. 7, cf. vi. 31) gives some extracts from his letter to one Aristides, reconciling the apparent discrepancy between Matthew and Luke in the genealogy of Christ by a reference to the Jewish law, which compelled a man to marry the widow of his deceased brother, if the latter died without issue. His terse and pertinent letter to Origen, impugning the authority of the apocryphal book of Susanna, and Origen's wordy and uncritical answer, are both extant. The ascription to Africanus of an eacyclopaedic work entitled Kecrroi (embroidered girdles), treating of agriculture, natural history, military science, &c., has been needlessly disputed on account of its secular and often credulous character. Neander suggests that it was written by Africanus before he had devoted himself to religious subjects. For a new fragment of this work see Oxyrhynchus Papyri (Grenfell and Hunt), iii. 36 ff.
AUTHORITIES.Edition in M. J. Routh, Rel. Sac. ii. 219-509; translation in Ante-Nicene Fathers (S. D. F. Salmond) vi. 125-140. See H. Gelzer, Sex. Jul. Africanus und die byzant. Chronographie, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 18801885); G. Kriiger, Early Christian Literature, 248-253; A. Harnack, Altchristl. Litt. Gesch. i. 507, ii. 70.